12 Tones of London

London's demographics explored by processing 2011 Census data with a statistical sorting method called cluster analysis. Attention is then focused on the sounds of the 12 archetypal council wards emerging from the study.

Cluster 4

Highest for skilled trades occupations, and green space as a proportion of land space. Second highest for English as the main household language, administrative and process occupations, White British population, and terraced houses. Lowest for Other White and Other Ethnicities populations, roads as a proportion of land area, and house conversions. Second lowest for professional occupations, population density, Mixed Race and Chinese populations, non-domestic buildings as a proportion of land area, and privately-rented housing.


Mean age: 37.5.

Main occupation groups – Professional: 15.3%. Administrative: 15.1%. Technical: 12.3%. Skilled trades: 12.2%. Elementary: 10.5%.

Long-term unemployed: 3.1%.

Main ethnic groups – White British: 68.4%. African: 6.3%. Other White: 5.7%. Indian: 4.2%. Mixed Race: 3.5%.

English as main household language: 87.6%.

Households without a car: 26.1%.


Residents per hectare: 30.6.

Main land use types – Green space: 51.4%. Domestic gardens: 19.9%. Roads: 8.9%. Domestic buildings: 5.9%. Non-domestic buildings: 3%.

Main housing types – Semi-detached: 33.1%. Terraced: 32%. Flats: 24.1%. Detached: 7.1%. Conversions: 2.5%.

Main tenure types – Mortgaged: 36.3%. Owned outright: 27.2%. Social housing: 21.1%. Privately rented: 13.3%.


Total wards: 46.

Wards with silhouette values above 0.2 in descending order: Hainault (Redbridge), Cray Valley East (Bromley), Gooshays (Havering), Chase (Enfield), Eastbury (Barking and Dagenham), Heaton (Havering), Havering Park (Havering), Crayford (Bexley), Bedfont (Hounslow), Hanworth Park (Hounslow), Chadwell Heath (Barking and Dagenham), Rainham and Wennington (Havering), Brooklands (Havering), Shooters Hill (Greenwich), Chessington South (Kingston upon Thames), Yiewsley (Hillingdon), Erith (Bexley), Harefield (Hillingdon).

Medoid/lowest average distance within: Brooklands (Havering) 21.79.

Highest silhouette value: Hainault (Redbridge) 0.3449.